Jour : 2 mars 2016

第一級 在北京的金山上/In the first stage of the Beijing Jinshan

第一級 在北京的金山上/In the first stage of the Beijing Jinshan

Mise en ligne le 22 nov. 2011

全國古箏演奏(業餘)考級作品集
中國音樂家協會考級委員會編 執行主編:邱大成

National zither (amateur) Grading Collections
Chinese Musicians Association Grading Committees Executive Editor: Qiu Dacheng

中國風音樂教室 http://blog.yam.com/sundongmei
Email:cc66cc66@gmail.com

GUQIN: The Playing And Notation of The Left Hand -1 2 3 4

The Playing And Notation of The Left Hand – 1
Playing Guqin, the left hand controls the precise pitch of the sound. Therefor the position of the fingers is very important. There are 6 basic finger techniques of the left hand: Yin, Rou, Chuo, Zhu, Shang and Xia. Under these 6 basic techniques, there are a number of variations. The variations are based on the length and the strength of vibrato, creating different atmospheres. Player needs to have an understanding of the piece of music first, so that one can present the appropriate feeling by using different finger techniques.

A, Press String Position of The Left Hand: Click the pictures for bigger image.


There are certain points on the finger tips and fingers that is or are used for playing pressing down (An-yin) or harmonic (Fan-yin) sound. Please click the picture for bigger image.

Da Zhi Notation:
Name: Da Zhi (Thumb)
Explanation: Slightly bend the thumb and using the side of the thumb, where the nail meets the skin or the side of knuckle of the thumb, press down the string. If pressing down 2 strings at one time, use both of the side of the nail and knuckle.

Shi Zhi Notation:
Name: Shi Zhi (Index finger)
Explanation: Naturally position the index finger on the string. It is used more often in Fan Yin, which is just lightly touching the string. Sometimes used together with the thumb.

Zhong Zhi Notation:
Name: Zhong Zhi (Middle finger)
Explanation: Naturally position the middle finger on the string. It is used more often on the 1st string.

Ming Zhi Notation:
Name: Ming Zhi (Ring finger)
Explanation: Slightly bend the ring finger and using the left side where the nail meets the skin to press down the string. Do not use the tip of the finger to press the string and do not use the middle finger to try to help to press down the ring finger. Thumb should not be raised up.

Gui Notation:
Name: Gui (Kneel)
Explanation: Kneeling the ring finger on the string. Using side of the back of the nail or back of the 1st knuckle to press down the string. It is usually used above the 5th Hui.

The Playing And Notation of The Left Hand – 2
The pictures shows the techniques using the thumb, but the techniques can also be perform using the index, middle and ring fingers.

6 Basic Finger Techniques of The Left Hand: Click the pictures for videos.


Yin Notation:
Name: Yín 吟
Explanation: A vibrato movement. A finger of the left hand presses down a string, and after a finger of the right hand plays the string, the left hand quickly moves down (to the left) and up, 2 to 3 times and back to the spot one started with. The strength of this movement is strong at the beginning but gradually reducing at the end. The distance between each up and down is not bigger than 1/5 of the distance to the next Hui position.

Nao Notation:
Name: Náo 猱
Explanation: A vibrato movement. A finger of the left hand presses down a string, and after a finger of the right hand plays the string, the left hand quickly moves up (to the right) and down, 2 to 3 times and back to the spot one started with. The strength of this movement is strong at the beginning but gradually reducing at the end. The distance between each up and down is not bigger than 1/4 of the distance to the next Hui position.

Chuo Notation:
Name: Chùo 綽
Explanation: A finger of the left hand, before pressing down a string on the indicated spot, starts about 5mm. below (to the left) of that spot, and quickly glides to the right, till the place indicated is reached.

Zhu Notation:
Name: Zhù 注
Explanation: It is the opposite of Chùo. The movement starts about 5mm. above (to the right) of the indicated spot, and quickly glides to the left, till the place indicated is reached.

Shang Notation:
Name: Shàng (ascending) 上
Explanation: While the right hand plucks the string that the left hand has pressed down, the left hand glides up to the spot that is indicated. The pressing and moving of the left hand should be solid so that it will create a very clear sound. If there is one ascending after another ascending, the notation will be « 二上 » (Èr Shàng , up twice). In Guqin tableture, only the final destination of Èr Shàng is indicated. So the player has to listen to the tone and move his or her finger up to a proper position for the first ascending tone. Each ascending tone is approximately one whole step, for example, Do- Re- Mi, or Re-Mi-Sol, or Mi- Sol- La, or Sol-La-Do, or La-Do-Re.

Xia Notation:
Name: Xià (descending) 下
Explanation: opposite of « Shàng. » While the right hand plucks the string that the left hand has pressed down, the left hand glides down to the spot that it is indicated. If there is one descending after another descending, the notation will be « 二下 » (Èr Xià, down twice). Same as Èr Shàng that the tableture only indicate the final desitination. So the player has to listen to the tone and move his or her finger down to a proper position for the first descending tone. Each descending tone is approximately one whole step. For example, Do- La- Sol, or La- Sol- Mi, or Sol- Mi-Re, or Mi- Re- Do, or Re- Do- La.

The Variations of Yín and Náo:

Notation: Name: Cháng Yin 長吟
Explanation: A drawn-out vibrato movement. The frequency of up and down is several times more than Yín. The total number can be 7 to 12 times of the frequency.

Notation: Name: Xì Yín 細吟
Explanation: A thin vibrato movement, more delicate than Yín.

Notation: Name: Dìng Yín 定吟
Explanation: A calm vibrato. It is rocking the string back and force without moving the finger.

Notation: Name: Yóu Yín 游吟
Explanation: Swinging vibrato. Similar to Shuang Zhùang (see Shuang Zhuang on next page) but slower.

Notation: Name: Lùo Zhĭ Yín 落指吟
Explanation: Immediately vibrato. Do Yín as soon as the left hand presses the string and the right hand plays the string.

Notation: Name: Lùe Yín 略吟
Explanation: Slightly Yín.

Notation: Name: Cháng Náo 長猱
Explanation: The movement is the same as Náo but the timing of the vibrato is longer. Same situation as Cháng Yín.

Notation: Name: Jí Náo 急猱
Explanation: A fast Náo. Feels tight and rapid but not in a hurry.

Notation: Name: Lùo Zhĭ Náo 落指猱
Explanation: Same situation as Lùo Zhĭ Yín. Do Náo as soon as the left hand presses the string and the right hand plays the string.

Notation: Name: Lùe Náo 略猱
Explanation: Slightly Náo.

For a further study on distinguish the differences between Yín and Náo and a short film of the demo, please visit here.

Main Menu / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 /

 

The Playing And Notation of The Left Hand – 3
The pictures shows the techniques using the thumb, but the techniques can also be perform using the index, middle and ring fingers.
Click the pictures to view videos.

Tang Notation:
Name: Taňg 淌
Explanation: Same as « Xià » 下 but the movement of the left hand is slower. It is a slow descending sound.

Tuo Notation:
Name: Tuo (or Tuo Shàng) 拖
Explanation: Same as « Shàng » 上 but the movement of the left hand is slower. It is a slow ascending sound.

Zhuàng Notation:
Name: Zhàng (to strike against) 撞
Explanation: When the left hand presses down a string, and then after the right hand has pulled the string, the left hand moves very quickly up (to the right) about 1/5 – 1/2 portion of to next Hui position, and quickly moves back to the spot indicated. The strength of moving up should be timid and fast and the down moving should be strong, solid and fast as well.

Shuang Zhuang Notation:
Name: Shuang Zhàng (to strike against twice) 雙撞
Explanation: Do twice of « Zhuàng. »

Xu Zhuang Notation:
Name: Xu Zhuàng 虛撞
Explanation: “Xu” literally means “empty, unfilled,” therefore a “Xu Zhuàng “is to have a Zhuàng technique happen after a non- plucked sound. For example, the left hand may do a Zhuàng after an upward moving technique (Shàng or Jìng ), or a downward moving technique (Xià or Fù ) or a vibrato technique (Yín or Náo ) has been performed.

Fan Zhuang Notation:
Name: Fǎn zhuàng (Opposit of Zhuàng) 反撞
Explanation: Same technique as « Zhàng » but moves the left hand very quickly down first (to the left) about 1/5 – 1/2 of to the next « Hui » position and moves back quickly to the spot indicated. It is like a faster motion of Tuì fù.

Dò Notation:
Name: Dò 逗
Explanation: While the right hand pulls the string, simultaneously the left hand moves up and back to the hui position quickly. It is similar to Zhuàng 撞, but Zhuàng is done after the right hand pulls the string.

Huàn Notation:
Name: Huàn 渙, 喚,or 換
Explanation: 宋成玉礀[琴書大全]: 注少許,略作猱, 而復引少許. Slides down over to the hui position a little bit, then slightly náo (once or twice), and then slides up to above the hui position a little bit.

Wang Lai Notation:
Name: Waňglaí (back and forth) 往來
Explanation: 往來得聲自上而下三次(或兩次). When a finger of the left hand presses down a string and after the right hand has pulled the string, the left hand moves down to the next sound position to the left and then moves back to where it started; and repeats this movement twice or three times to produce a total of 4 or 6 sounds. (ex. 5,3,5,3,5,3).

Fen Kai Notation:
Name: Fen Kai 分開
Explanation: When a finger of the left hand presses down a string and after the right hand has pulled the string, the left hand glides up to the next Hui position to the right; and then while the right hand pulls the string again, the left hand glides back to where it started, as the action of « Zhù. »

Main Menu / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 /

The Playing And Notation of The Left Hand – 4
Click the pictures to view the videos.

Jin Fu Notation:
Name: Jìn fù 進復 (advancing and returning)
Explanation: When a finger of the left hand presses down a string, and after the right hand has pulled the string, the left hand glides up to the right to a certain point indicated or to one pitch higher, then glides back to where it started.

Tui Fu Notation:
Name: Tuì fù 退復 (backward and returning)
Explanation: Opposite of Jìn fù. When a finger of the left hand presses down a string, and after the right hand has pulled the string, the left hand glides down to the left to a certain point indicated or one pitch lower, then glides back to where it started.

Qia Qi Notation:
Name:Qiā qǐ 掐起
Explanation: This technique is particularly used for the thumb of the left hand. After the thumb presses down a string (on the 8th Hui for example), the ring finger (or middle finger) presses down the same string at the next Hui (the 9th). Instead of using the right hand to pull the string, the thumb of the left hand pulls up the sting. Using the edge of the thumbnail to pull the sting up, at the same time the ring finger (or the middle finger) still presses down steadily.

Zhua Qi Notation:
Name: Zhua Qĭ 抓起
Explanation: This technique is particularly used for the thumb of the left hand. After the thumb presses down a string, it lightly pulls up the string to create a Săn Yin.

Dai Qi Notation:
Name: Dài Qǐ 帶起
Explanation: This technique is particularly used for the ring finger of the left hand. After the left ring finger presses down a string, it plucks the string to create a Sǎn Yin. However, some ancient qin tabletures used « Dài qǐ » not just for the ring finger but for the thumb (as Zhua Qǐ) and middle finger as well.

Yan Notation:
Name: Yǎn 罨 (to cover)
Explanation: This technique is mostly executed with the left hand thumb, that the thumb taps a string to produce a low, dull sound after the left ring finger pressed down the string. For example, when the left ring finger presses down the 3rd string on the 10th Hui, the left thumb taps the same string on the 9th Hui (while the left ring still presses down). and after tapping the string, the left thumb stays there steadily and does not move away.

Xu Yan Notation:
Name: Xū Yǎn 虛罨
Explanation: This technique is mostly executed with the middle or ring finger and sometimes the thumb. Same technique as Yǎn but without pressing down any string before doing Yǎn.

Tue Chu Notation:
Name: Tue Chu (pushing outward) 推出
Explanation: This technique is particularly used on the 1st string for the middle finger of the left hand. After the middle finger presses a sting down, it makes the 1st string sound by pushing it outward.

Ying He Notation:
Name: Yīng Hé 應合 (respond and unite)
Explanation: The left middle or ring finger presses down a string, and the right hand plucks it, the left hand stays on the same string and does not move away yet. While the right hand plucks another string, the left hand moves either up or down to the position where it has the same sound as the string that the right hand had played. Eventually making both strings sound together (one is a solid sound, the other is a soft sound).

Tong Shen Notation:
Name: Tóng Shēng (sounds together) 同聲, also called Dài Hé 帶合
Explanation: This technique is creating a kind of chord. The left hand plucks one string (can be the middle finger Tuīchū, or the ring finger Dàiqǐ or the thumb Zhuāqǐ), at the same time, the right hand plucks another string to make both strings sound together.

Main Menu / 1 / 2 / 3 / 4 /
Copyright ©2001-2013 Judy (Pei-You) Changhttp://www.peiyouqin.com/notation3d.html

WIKIPEDIA : Guqin playing technique

Guqin playing technique

guqin 2.jpg

guqin part names.png

guqin pitches.jpg

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The playing techniques of the guqin, sometimes called fingerings, are more numerous than those of any other Chinese or Western musical instrument. They are also complex and full of symbolism.

Contents

Basic sounds

The music of the qin can be categorised as three distinctively different « sounds. » The first is san yin音〕, which means « scattered sounds. » This is produced by plucking the required string to sound an open note About this sound Listen . The second is fan yin音〕, or « floating sounds. » These are harmonics, in which the player lightly touches the string with one or more fingers of the left hand at a position indicated by the hui dots, pluck and lift, creating a crisp and clear sound About this sound Listen . The third is an yin音 / 音 / 音 / 音〕, or « stopped sounds. » This forms the bulk of most qin pieces and requires the player to press on a string with a finger or thumb of the left hand until it connects with the surface board, then pluck. Afterwards, the musician’s hand often slides up and down, thereby modifying the pitch. This technique resembles that of playing a slide guitar across the player’s lap, but the technique of the qin is very varied and utilises the whole hand, whilst a slide guitar only has around 3 or 4 main techniques About this sound Listen to Pei Lan .

According to the book Cunjian Guqin Zhifa Puzi Jilan, there are around 1,070 different finger techniques used for the qin, with or without names. It therefore uses the most finger techniques of any instrument in Chinese, or even Western, music[1]. Most are obsolete, but around 50 or so are sufficient to know in modern practice.

Nails

When plucking the strings, fake nails are not required to be attached to the fingers. One will often leave their fingernails long, and cut them into an elliptical shape. The length is subjective and will depend on the player’s preference, but it is usually around 3 – 4 mm from the finger tip. If it is too short, then the finger tip will deaden the sound as it touches the string after the nail has plucked it. If it is too long then the fingers can be cumbersome and can impede performance. Generally, the nails of the right hand are kept long, whilst the nails of the left are cut short, so as to be able to press on the strings without hindrance. For people who have brittle fingernails, the Yugu Zhai Qinpu has some methods of strengthening them. Unlike other plucked instruments, like guzheng and pipa, plectrums and fake-nails should be avoided. For the guzheng and pipa where one must attack the strings with force, thus, susceptible to fingernail breakage, the qin requires gentle force to play. Also, fake-nails tend to hinder the fingers, or create an unsatisfactory tone, thus it is best to pluck with natural fingernails. That and because one can feel the qin strings better.

Technique

The above four figures are from an old handbook. [2]

Right hand

There are eight basic right hand finger techniques: pi〉 (thumb pluck outwards), tuo〉 (thumb pluck inwards), mo〉 (index in), tiao〉 (index out), gou〉 (middle in), ti〉 (middle out), da〉 (ring in), and zhai〉 (ring out); the little finger is not used. Out of these basic eight, their combinations create many. Cuo〉 is to pluck two strings at the same time, lun/轮〉 is to pluck a string with the ring, middle and index finger out in quick succession, the suo/锁〉 technique involves plucking a string several times in a fixed rhythm, bo/拔〉 cups the fingers and attacks two strings at the same time, and gun fu〉 is to create glissandi by running up and down the strings continuously with the index and middle fingers. These are just a few.

Left hand

Left hand techniques start from the simple pressing down on the string (mostly with the thumb between the flesh and nail, and the ring finger), sliding up or down to the next note (shang〉 and xia〉), to vibrati by swaying the hand (yin〉 and nao〉, there are as many as 15 plus different forms of vibrato), plucking the string with the thumb whilst the ring finger stops the string at the lower position (qiaqi / 起〉), hammering on a string using the thumb (yan / 〉), to more difficult techniques such as pressing on several strings at the same time.

Both hands

Techniques executed by both hands in tandem are more difficult to achieve, like qia cuo san sheng 〈掐撮三聲/掐撮三声〉 (a combination of hammering on and off then plucking two strings, then repeating), to more stylised forms, like pressing of all seven strings with the left, then strumming all the strings with the right, then the left hand quickly moves up the qin, creating a rolling sound like a bucket of water being thrown in a deep pool of water (this technique is used in the Shu style of Liu Shui to imitate the sound of water). [3]

Other issues

In order to master the qin, there are in excess of 50 different techniques that must be mastered. Even the most commonly used (such as tiao) are difficult to get right without proper instruction from a teacher. Also, certain techniques vary from teacher to teacher and school to school. [4]

There are also a lot of obsolete fingerings and notation that are rarely used in modern tablature. There are now new books that have begun to be published about these fingerings and notation as qin culture and study gains momentum. [5]

References

Please see: References section in the guqin article for a full list of references used in all qin related articles.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Guo, Ping. Guqin Congtan 【古琴丛谈】. Page 112.
  2. ^ Zhang, He. Qinxue Rumen 【琴學入門】. Volume 1, leaves 39, 40, 43 and 47.
  3. ^ Wu, Jinglüe and Wenguang. Yushan Wushi Qinpu 【虞山吴氏琴谱】 The Qin Music Repertoire of the Wu Family. Pages 507-526.
  4. ^ Wang, Binglu. Mei’an Qinpu 【楳盦珡諩】. Volume 1 leaves 18-24.
  5. ^ Yao, Bingyan and Huang, Shuzhi. Tangdai Chen Zhuo Lun Guqin Zhifa: Yao Bingyan Qinxue Zhu Shu zhi Yi 【唐代陳拙論古琴指法‧姚丙炎琴學著述之一】.